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Home The integration of two mainstream: the role of carer education

The integration of two mainstream: the role of carer education

  • Childhood : School integration
  • Europe : France
  • Testimony

From Karine Racani¨re the Dec 27, 2010


I integrated the function of AVSI in March 2004, so it's relatively new, and I'll try to explain a reading of my work with children I care.

I will introduce inclusive education in mainstream of two young boys with behavioral problems, through my own observations, my experience in the field and discussions with various persons met.


I Presentation of the institutional framework "regular school"


1-1 Preschool Lakanal: large section

The school has six classes of the small section at a large nursery section. The little boy I care, we will call S, is a large section K, which are 23 children born in 1999. Children are divided into four groups of similar level. Each group has its own color, which facilitates the organization of the class. S. this is three half-days a week: Monday morning, Thursday and Friday afternoon.

Class organization concerned day:

- Monday morning: the morning (8h30/11h30) is for learning, the morning is more conducive to ritual: place a label name, fill in the schedule, watch the weather ...

- Thursday and Friday afternoon in the afternoon (13h30/16h30) brings more fun activities, children are construction toys, puzzles, they follow a basic computer, and participate in activities that involve motor skills.


1-2 Elementary School boiling water preparatory course

The school has four classes of first grade to CM2. The second boy I care, we will call D, is in preparation (CP). The class has a double standard CP / CE1. Students from CE1 are six, most repeaters or mild learning difficulties. The class totaled 18 students aged between 6 and 8 years.

D. is present on Tuesday afternoon, Thursday and Friday morning.

Organization of the class day concerned:

            - Tuesday afternoon: Learning from September to October and physical activity / November-December participation in cycles (opening-up classes with theater activities, cooking, pottery ...) and learning.

- Thursday morning, learning and computer literacy in the school library.

- Friday morning reading and 9:30 departure to the pool until 11:30 Pablo Neruda.


1-3 Meetings integration

This is the place of exchange established between the different actors that revolve around the child. Parents are present as well as representatives of the school (teacher, manager, secretary CCPE) and professionals (psychologist, speech teacher ...) and AVS, often "on horseback between the three."

At the kindergarten Lakanal, meetings are held in the multipurpose room overlooked by all classes. At the school of boiled water, it takes place in a small house (reception room) separated from the school, but overlooking the courtyard. In fact the atmosphere is very different from one school to another even if the intentions are the same: adjust our observations and determine the best choices for the child.


II Introduction and observation of two "not normal"


2-1 Portrait of D.

D. this language impairments and communication. He then joined by the side of his autistic disability. As pronominal reversal: D. has difficulty using the "I" it often responds to a question by repeating it instead of using the "yes". It also uses the body of the other as an extension of his own body often for reassurance when I read him a story such as he sits down between my legs, place the book in front of him and took my hands so I turn the pages or when it comes to pointing the finger at an exercise he uses my index as a pencil.

In terms of social interaction with their environment, they are qualitatively impaired. D. is struggling to adapt to group situations. It is often out of step with other children because the time I got to get his attention and explain what is expected of them, it is often too late. Such as: guess the number written on the sheet that holds the master in his hand, even if the answer she will not come when it is sought.


2-2 Portrait of S.

            S. a child is indeed very active, easily bored, he must find an interest in an exercise for him to. Its level of attention is low. His office is immaculately tidy, it is also the only office to claim a record. It has language difficulties but it is supported by a speech therapist. It is not yet write his name without a model, he can count to three.

 It is a mischievous little boy and touching. The problem is that it does not stay still. It has poor resistance to frustration and returns any aggression on himself. He sometimes banging his head against the table when he is anxious or to begin to run and thrown to the ground. The most dangerous for him is a tendency to conduct ordeal, it endangers voluntarily and feel great satisfaction when he "survives" in waterfalls. When I arrived the first day, S. is mounted at the top of the wall bars (wooden ladder of about 2m20) in the gym and he was literally thrown into my arms. I told him it was very dangerous, it could have been very bad but he said with a smile of satisfaction, not content "did you see I'm not hurt, I'm not bad! ".

D. This behavioral problems that are illustrated by a tendency to hyperactivity, attention disorder, anxiety on edge that seems to invade at any time.

Instinctual overflow is palpable in this little boy, it's hard to keep up. I must often contain physically.

S. was presented to me as a child unstable, hyperactive and above all threatening to the point that this little boy has no right to participate in field trips and must stay inside during recess while all her young friends playing outside. This decision was taken by the teacher and supported by the School Director.

Admittedly, S. jumped twice the gate and was therefore found in the street not to mention the time he "amused" to go down the slide head first hand in the back. The teacher has decided, in agreement with the Director, to take action. My arrival did not change the rule development and the mother of S. is hard to accept that S. is always left out of trips outside in spite of my presence. If my presence reduces the risk of accidents (such as jumping the gate and cross the street ...) it does not reduce the responsibility of the teacher in case problem.

2-3 Families and the look of the other

"The teacher shows itself insecure with respect to a child who has a lot of difficulties in school and with whom she does not know what to do. She feels alone in his difficulties and does not expect to work with the mother, who settled a conflictual relationship. In class, Nicolas takes the role of scapegoat, he is there to make others laugh, but when they work, it must itself find games to attend. " [1]

This excerpt reflects sadly the first impression when relations between the institution and the family. Most of the parents met, they do not feel fully met, can retreat into a silence, fear of Judgement with respect to the school is present and that's all it takes work set up to establish a relationship of trust.

I think there is a course of action with respect to the parents not to replace them, not crush them with our "know" our "successes" with the child. Otherwise the notion of rivalry can creep at the expense of the child. A mother (or father) can be injured (e) through our speech: "... thanks to me he can write his name he can count to ten ..." yes but the mother is working at home and it is through our combined efforts as the child progresses. Family, mother, father are partners and are also suffering they must be there, listen, develop them, give them a place.


2-4 The parent / child relationship

For D. I've never seen her dad. The father is very active and D. savings did nothing. It is always very agitated when he leaves school and goes often spit in the face of his father as a reunion. The father very patient and calm appears to be a receptacle of choice for anxiety D. How does he live? I think it's very hard but it is a modest man who does not display his suffering and still smiling.

For S. I regularly see her mom with the new little brother and stepfather. S. also has a second little brother who is in kindergarten and a cousin in elementary school above the kindergarten. His aunt just as long to get him. S. is affectionate with members of his family. It is surrounded by a child who seems to have good relations with his parents at large despite its difficulties.


AVSI III: a role, one way to define and defend


My definition 3-1

I think being carer education is to be a tool, ongoing support, attentive and patient service of the Child on the ground to enable the access and retention in the traditional school system.

It is easily adapted, to help maintain and acquire new knowledge, new skills. It also sometimes be invisible to empower the child in his school life.

The AVS has a function of "runner" with the child. This is to allow the relay host, the separation between the different living areas (family / school / hospital days ...). Is putting the child in relation to its environment.

"Integration is a process which compliance should lead to the desired success of an individual on himself and on others. "[2]


3-2 Adaptation to the environment and child

This function is relatively new arrival in each class is different. You never know if it is perceived, accepted by the teacher but also by the child.

Teacher level I have no trouble communicating and working, the only notable difference is the degree of involvement of the teacher in relation to the child's integration contract, the latter being more or less suffered. Most of the time the teacher does not have enough time to give the foster child and discharge all of the AVSI which we recall is not fit to teach, I do not know how to learn to read six year old, then how?

I think we should first observe the organization of the class, keep up with the teacher, interested in its program to allow the child to do the same.

We must of course adapt to the child that is at his level, but certainly have expectations to be careful not to set goals too high because our disappointment is nothing compared to all the parents who day asking me "so it went well? You know right now at home ... it's hard. " It is in these sound bites say between two doors, in these fleeting and informal exchanges that I weave the link with families and I often feel anxiety and parental expectations.


Being 3-3 with AVSI D. and S.

With D. CP up to try to interest the class I have to contain almost continuously, but since the beginning of the year I have noticed improvements in his behavior.

 There is still no obvious progress in learning, but D is beginning to enjoy holding a pen and perform acts of simple graphs such as round or write his name without eventually brutally crushed his pencil on the sheet . It can also play alone in the classroom in a calm and always after working at least with me. The fact that it remains in the class as each student is also a step forward, we no longer have to leave the class so that it will "relax", we need to do is isolate the back of the class when the anxiety is  too large or to channel its attention on an exercise.

With S. at its maximum performance try to stabilize it. The class is quite noisy and it "excites" I noticed that it could be very quiet when he's just quiet. There is a computer in a small room adjoining the classroom. S. loves to play on the computer program (coloring). We both laid down rules that he began to follow despite his impatience with the machine. The rules are simple: be patient, do not turn on or off the computer without the presence of adults, play provided they have worked before.

            After a period of about two weeks, where we got to know, I decided to return gradually S. in recreation, I told the teacher. The first time, the last quarter hour of recreation, S. could, provided that it is "screwed" on his bike, pedaling as he pleased in the backyard. On the fourth day without cycling, S. was able to climb the slide, he was very happy and expressed his mom.

I returned to S. at recess because I trusted him, he was very sorry to be away and he was aware that there was only way out was to play quietly with other children. We made a compromise: I decided the length of the recess according to the degree of agitation, he was too excited we finished the class, not to punish but to play on the computer in the recreation instruction was not necessarily the bike (it was more easily identifiable). I hope by Christmas to make him write his name without a model and knows how to count to five without hesitation.


3-4 Stigma and administrative constraints

Despite the good will of all, integration is difficult to D. as S. Disability is stigmatizing and  isolates the children or interferes with the conduct of the class and therefore the quality of education.

In class D. two boys struggle to contain their laughter and mockery with respect to D. they encouraged him to scream or spit unaware of the inconvenience it causes (anxiety increasing D., loss of time are quiet in the classroom where waste of time for the teacher and students ...) . For S. is even more difficult, despite my presence and because of his hyperactive behavior and dangerous to himself the small S. can not go on school trips, the teacher did not want to take that responsibility ...

At the administrative burden, the fact of being shared between two children has had an impact on the implementation schedules. At the meeting of integration we have arranged the schedule of D. tailor its 9am AVS were spread over four half days (specifically the four mornings). But the remaining half-day did not correspond with the schedule, already heavy, S. A new schedule has been imposed by the AIS (Adaptation Integration School) 9 am bringing the AVS D. on  three half days of school and not four as planned at the meeting of integration.



Arriving near the end of this school year, take stock. These two little boys, I think, benefited from keeping them in mainstream. In S. moments of agitation are present but are less frequent and it gets almost no risk. Some acts of self-harm have improved (he bangs his head against over the table when he is wrong in a year, he knows he has the right to be wrong). S. has made "big" progress: he can count to ten and does well the link between the nursery rhyme figures and the fact that really count, he wrote his name and to apply, seems to enjoy working and especially it is no longer isolated. By engaging all areas of the school (classroom and school yard) S. could easily make friends and even have a "love" it sounds Benin but has brought much joy to S. but especially his mother who suffered from the setting aside of his son.

For D. there are still difficulties to verbalize his frustrations and his desires, which always results in heterosexual behavior and self-harm (D. slaps the face or slap the first child that passes within range). While anticipating his actions, he anticipates our example and said "do not spit" and began to spit. He knows the banned but can still help the brave but warns of its excesses. D. is in progress, it uses more and more the "I" as "I want to drink" or "I'm tired." He can play any recess with a rugby ball, which he bought his father, alone or with friends in games and other children adapt to the level of D. and encouraged.

For my part I hope I have made progress. I tried during this year to create the link, meaning around these two children so they feel less parachuted only welcome in this place that is sometimes challenging as requiring school.





Disabled children and school integration, P. FUSTER JEANNE P., Armand Colin, Paris 1998


[1] The school context and its hostages, G. Evéquoz Ed ESF, Paris 87, p.95

[2] Disabled children and school integration, P. FUSTER JEANNE P., Armand Colin, Paris 1998, p.76

Translation Project
Canonical language : French
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